Basic Windows elements

Basic Windows elements


  •  A window is simply a rectangular unit that acts independently from other windows.
  •  In a graphical user interface (GUI), the boundaries of the window can be easily expanded or contracted.
  •  Windows come in two basic types: the application window, and the dialog box.
Application window
  • Application windows are the main part of almost all programs. 
  • Common elements of application windows include the control menu, menu bar,and border.

Dialog box
  • Dialogs perform a specific task or give details for the application.
  • Most dialog boxes lack several of the control buttons and a border, and will have other buttons inside the window to complete a request such as―OK‖ and―CANCEL‖.

  • In GUI interfaces, the taskbar is a desktop toolbar application that lets the user to locate and perform tasks such as switching between open Windows and starting new applications.
  • A bar at the bottom of the desktop is the Taskbar and it was first introduced with Microsoft Windows 95 and found in all versions of Windows after that.
  • The notification area, at the far right of the taskbar, includes a clock and a group of icons.
  • When clicked on a window title in the taskbar, that window will become active and show up in front of other Windows which are opened already.. 
  • An icon is a small graphic representation of a program.
  •  Icons allow the user to access the program with ease.
  •  Icons are used with Graphical User Interface (GUI).
  •  Operating Systems such as Microsoft Windows and the Apple Mac OS to help quickly identify a type of file or program associated with the icon.

Start menu
  • The Start menu is a feature of the Windows Operating System that provides quick access to programs, folders and system settings.
  • By default, the Start menu is located in the lower-left corner of the Windows desktop.

  • A border is ―a part that forms the outer edge of something.‖
  •  The border not only defines where the window is on the desktop, but it can also be used to change the size of most windows. 
  • This type of border can be used to represent the outer edge of a document or to separate several sections within a document from each other.

Title Bar
  • The title bar is located along the top of a window or a dialog box that displays the name of the window or software program being used.
  • In many graphical user interfaces, including the Macintosh and Microsoft Windows interfaces, user move (drag) a window by grabbing the title bar.
  •  Control buttons are the little buttons which are on the right side of title bar 
  • These commands can be done with the mouse using other window elements; their primary usefulness is in when user have to do any of these functions with the keyboard.

Minimize Button
  •  By pressing, it will remove the window and replace it with a program icon somewhere on the desktop.

Maximize / Restore Button
 Maximize Button
  •  By pressing, it will make the window as large as it can possibly go – usually as large as the screen.

 Restore Button
  •  The button will then change to the Restore Button, which when pressed change the window back to its previous size.

Close Button
  • Pressing this button is just one way of closing the window. Other ways of closing the window include double-clicking the control menu or clicking on the File menu and then Exit if it's an application window, and clicking on the ―OK‖ button if it's a dialog box.
  •  Take caution on dialog boxes: When this button is active, it usually has the same effect as pressing the ―CANCEL‖ button, so be sure that, don't need to save any changes user made in the dialog box.

Help Button 
  • If user press it, a question mark will be attached to the mouse pointer.
  •  Then when user click on something else in that window, user will see a little box describing the purpose of what they clicked on and/or how to use it.

Resize Handle
  • The resize handle is actually an extension to the border, found in the lower right corner of the window. It is especially useful when user want to change the size of the window but for some reason the border is too thin.

Menu Bar
Menu bar in Notepad
  •  A menu bar is present in every application window directly below the title bar.
  •  Each word on the menu bar is a separate menu. If user click on the word, the corresponding menu will appear.
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